Phonological vs Phonemic
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Phonological Awareness is an umbrella term to describe the ability to discriminate between the different sounds and patterns of language. For instance, phonological awareness deals with syllables, phonemes, onsets and rimes.


It is often confused with phonemic awareness, which is the ability to discriminate between the smallest units of sound in language (phonemes). Deficits in phonological awareness - and phonemic awareness - can predict poor reading and spelling.


See below links to videos and websites that describe and provide examples of phonological awareness and phonemic awareness and how to teach them. See also An Early Reading Scope & Sequence using the Tolman Hour Glass.



Understanding the role of phonemic proficiency in boosting reading skills in struggling readers by David Kilpatrick

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A lesson on phonological awareness using manipulatives by Lyn Stone


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Susan Landry: Phonological Awareness Instruction

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Phoneme vs Phonological Awareness: Knowing the Difference Matters for Assessment and Instruction by Dr. Maria Murray of The Reading League (NY)

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What is the difference between Phonological and Phonemic Awareness?

What does poor phonological or phonemic awareness look like? What you can do to assist students?What can parents do at home?

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